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Table 1 Actions mediated by extracellular high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)

From: High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1): an alarmin mediating the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease

Target cells Biological actions of HMGB1
Dendritic cells Maturation and capacity to home to lymph nodes.
Monocytes/macrophages Potential proinflammatory cytokine production in collaboration with PAMP or DAMP molecules.
  Induction of MMPs.
  Promotes migration of monocytes.
Neutrophils Enhances chemotaxis.
  Prevents apoptosis.
T lymphocytes Proliferation and polarization toward TH1.
B lymphocytes Potentiates activation by DNA-IgG complexes.
Epithelial cells Increased enterocyte permeability causing barrier dysfunction.
  Bactericidal effects.
Platelets Expressed on cell surface by activated platelets.
Osteoclasts Enhances osteoclast formation and TNF release by direct binding to the TNF promoter.
Endothelial cells Proangiogenic.
  Upregulation of adhesion molecules.
Smooth muscle cells Causes migration and proliferation.
Neurons Induces neurite outgrowth.
Astrocytes Proinflammatory activity, including chemotactic signals and MMP formation.
  Induces glutamate release.
Cardiac myocytes Negative inotropic effects.
  Involved in repair.
Stem cells Chemotaxis.
  Promotes differentiation.
Tumor cells Enhances invasiveness.
  MMP formation.
  Strong HMGB1 overexpression.
  1. DAMP, damage-associated molecular pattern; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PAMP, pathogen-associated molecular pattern; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VDJ, variable diversity joining.