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Table 2 Globally distributed arthritogenic alphaviruses

From: Virally associated arthritis 2008: clinical, epidemiologic, and pathophysiologic considerations

Arthritogenic alphavirus Geographic distribution Comments
Ross River Australia and Oceania Reported in travelers and visiting US military personnel.
Barmah Forest Australia  
Sindbis group Africa, Asia, and Australia Enzootic vertebrate hosts are birds. Also reported in travelers.
   Karelian fever Russia  
   Ockelbo Sweden  
   Pogosta Finland  
Mayaro South America  
O'nyong-nyong Central and East Africa  
Igbo Ora Central Africa  
Chikungunya South and East Asia, Africa, West Pacific, and sporadic cases in Europe and the US Reported in travelers from endemic areas to the US and Europe. Recent mosquito-borne outbreak described in Northern Italy.