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Table 1 Effects of cytokines on macrophages/monocytes during rheumatoid arthritis

From: Cell signalling in macrophages, the principal innate immune effector cells of rheumatoid arthritis

Cytokine Monocyte/macrophage activation Cytokine release ROI release PG release iNOS/NO release MHC expression FcγRs
IL-1    
IL-7       
IL-10 ↑/↓   
IL-15 ↑ or ↓ (dose dependant)       
IL-17    
IL-18      
IL-32      
MIF     
TGFβ Early ↑, then ↓       
TNFα   
Type-I IFNs      
  1. Up and down arrows indicate increase and decrease, respectively. FcγRs, Fcγ receptors; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MIF, macrophage migration-inhibitory factor; NO, nitric oxide; PG, prostaglandin; ROI, reactive oxygen intermediates; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor. Adapted from [159].