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Table 2 Cellular phenotypes of lupus probands, first-degree relatives and controls

From: Reduced proportions of natural killer T cells are present in the relatives of lupus patients and are associated with autoimmunity

Cell population gated Cell types Probands (n = 144) First-degree relatives (n = 357) Controls (n = 102)
Lymphocytes (× 106/ml)   0.63 ± 0.31*** (<0.0001) 0.83 ± 0.32 0.83 ± 0.37
CD20+ B cells 14.54 ± 9.12 15.19 ± 7.10 (0.014) 13.84 ± 4.95
CD20+CD27-CD38-/+ Naïve mature B cells 60.59 ± 16.54* 60.24 ± 15.06** (0.0051) 65.47 ± 11.65
CD20+CD27-CD38++ Transitional B cells 14.63 ± 11.61* (0.009) 10.58 ± 8.04 10.11 ± 5.92
CD20+CD27-CD80+ Activated naïve B cells 2.75 ± 4.72 1.50 ± 2.37 2.21 ± 5.51
CD20+CD27-CD86+ Activated naïve B cells 6.93 ± 9.43 4.04 ± 5.64*** (0.0009) 6.44 ± 7.19
CD20+CD27+CD38-/+ Memory B cells 23.40 ± 15.79 28.15 ± 15.67* 24.32 ± 11.50
CD20+CD27+CD38++ Pre-germinal center B cells 2.77 ± 2.98*** (0.003) 1.49 ± 1.91 1.68 ± 3.06
CD20+CD27+CD80+ Activated memory/pre-germinal center B cells 18.91 ± 11.69* 16.59 ± 9.53 15.84 ± 8.36
CD20+CD27+CD86+ Activated memory/pre-germinal center B cells 12.12 ± 9.64*** (0.0039) 8.10 ± 6.52 9.00 ± 8.47
CD20+CD69+ Recently activated B cells 20.40 ± 15.84*** (<0.0001) 13.05 ± 12.00 10.85 ± 8.93
CD3+ T cells 63.44 ± 14.68 61.23 ± 12.68* 64.8 ± 9.70
CD3+CD4+ CD4+ T cells 34.50 ± 12.77*** (0.0001) 40.06 ± 11.91 40.77 ± 9.98
CD3+CD8+ CD8+ T cells 25.24 ± 11.01* 19.38 ± 9.30* 21.18 ± 7.46
CD3+Vα24+Vβ11+ NKT cells 0.06 ± 0.13*** (<0.0001) 0.08 ± 0.20*** (0.013) 0.11 ± 0.17
CD4+CD25+ Treg cells 6.62 ± 4.30 6.39 ± 3.41 6.46 ± 2.98
CD4+CD45RA+CD45RO- Naive CD4+ cells 31.62 ± 14.41 25.06 ± 13.13** 29.05 ± 12.69
CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+ Memory CD4+ cells 37.10 ± 14.04* 41.63 ± 15.16 (0.0433) 40.27 ± 11.95
CD4+CD69+ Recently activated CD4+ cells 10.55 ± 11.32*** (0.0001) 7.08 ± 8.56 5.95 ± 5.92
CD8+CD45RA+CD45RO- Naive CD8+ cells 62.36 ± 16.37* 53.92 ± 15.15** 58.61 ± 13.53
CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+ Memory CD8+ cells 15.75 ± 9.91*** (0.0027) 21.35 ± 11.09 20.29 ± 10.37
  1. Cellular phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry following staining with relevant conjugated monoclonal antibodies, as described in the Materials and methods section. Shown is the mean ± standard deviation for each group. Asterisks indicate significance as compared to controls using the Wilcoxon Test: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, and ***P < 0.0005. Bold numbers denote significant differences (P < 0.05) from control individuals using a Van Elteren test, where sex and age are covariates. The P values for significant differences are shown in parentheses. NK, natural killer; Treg, T regulatory (cell).