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Table 4 Some angiogenic and angiostatic factors in arthritis

From: Vascular involvement in rheumatic diseases: 'vascular rheumatology'

  Mediators Inhibitors
Chemokines IL-8/CXCL8, ENA-78/CXCL5, groα/CXCL1, CTAP-III/CXCL7, SDF-1/CXCL12, MCP-1/CCL2, SLC/CCL21, MPIF/CCL23, fractalkine/CX3CL1 PF4/CXCL4, IP-10/CXCL10, Mig/CXCL9, SLC/CCL21
Matrix molecules Type I collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparin, heparan sulphate Thrombospondin, RGD sequence
Cell adhesion molecules β1 and β3 integrins, E-selectin, P-selectin, CD34, VCAM-1, endoglin, PECAM-1, vascular endothelial-cadherin, Lewisy/H, MUC18 RGD sequence (integrin ligand)
Growth factors VEGF, bFGF, aFGF, PDGF, EGF, IGF-I, HIF-1, TGF-βa TGF-βa
Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6a, IL-15, IL-18 IL-4, IL-6a, IFN-α, IFN-γ
Proteases MMPs, plasminogen activators TIMPs, plasminogen activator inhibitors
Others Angiogenin, substance P, prolactin DMARDs, infliximab, etanercept, angiostatin, endostatin
  1. aMediators with both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. aFGF, acidic fibroblast growth factor; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CTAP-III, connective tissue-activating peptide-III; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ENA-78, epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78; groα, growth-regulated oncogene-alpha; HIF-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1; IFN, interferon; IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor-I; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible 10-kDa protein; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; Mig, monokine induced by interferon-gamma; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; MPIF, myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor; MUC18, melanoma cell adhesion molecule; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PECAM-1, platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1; PF4, platelet factor-4; RGD, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid; SDF-1, stromal cell-derived factor-1; SLC, secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-beta; TIMP, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.