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Table 6 Common risk factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis underlying rheumatic diseases

From: Vascular involvement in rheumatic diseases: 'vascular rheumatology'

1. Traditional Age
  Smoking
  Dyslipidemia
  Hypertension
  Diabetes mellitus
  Immobilization
  Sedentary lifestyle
2. Inflammatory Acute-phase proteins (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen)
  Lipoprotein (a)
  Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency
  Decreased paraoxonase activity
  CD4+/CD28- T cells
  Autoantibodies (anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor, anti-oxLDL, anti-phospholipid antibody, anti-hsp)
  Proatherogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6)
  Chemokines
  Angiogenic growth factors
  Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases
  Increased cell adhesion molecule expression
  Hyperhomocysteinemia
  Defective apoptosis
3. Iatrogenic Methotrexate – bimodal?
  Corticosteroids – bimodal?
  1. anti-CCP, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide; anti-oxLDL, anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein.