aUric acid levels are reported in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl); to convert to μm/l, multiply by 59.48. Data are presented incorporating sample weights and adjusted for clusters and strata of the complex sample design of NHANES III. bAdjusted for age, smoking status, body mass index, use of postmenopausal hormone, diuretics, beta-blockers, allopurinol and uricosuric agents, hypertension and glomerular filtration rate. cAdditionally adjusted for intake of alcohol, total meats, seafood, dairy foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, coffee and total energy. CI, confidence interval.