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Figure 4 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Figure 4

From: Insights into endocrine-immunological disturbances in autoimmunity and their impact on treatment

Figure 4

Downregulatory and upregulatory influences exerted by vitamin D on the immune response. Synthetic presentation of the major downregulatory (yellow) and upregulatory (with) influences exerted by vitamin D on the immune response. Effects on T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and related cytokines, as well as on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and dendritic cells (DC). NKT, natural killer T cells; TGFβ1, transforming growth factor beta 1; Th, T-helper type cells; Treg, regulatory T cells.

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