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Table 2 Studies evaluating the risk of coronary heart disease in systemic lupus erythematosus

From: The inextricable link between atherosclerosis and prototypical inflammatory diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

[Reference] (year) Study design SLE definition n Estimated risk
[11] (1997) Prospective cohort ACR criteria for SLE 498 5-fold risk for MI
50-fold risk in ages 35 to 44 years
[86] (1999) Retrospective cohort Rheumatologist diagnosis 8,742 2.27-fold risk for MI
3.8-fold risk for chronic heart failure
[12] (2001) Retrospective cohort Rheumatologist diagnosis 296 17.0-fold risk for CVD
10.1-fold risk for MI
7.9-fold risk for stroke
[87] (2004) Cross-sectional, prospective ACR criteria for SLE 202 (cross-sectional), 47 (prospective) 1.4-fold risk for CHD
0.6-fold risk for stroke
8.5% CHD events
10% stroke follow up
[88] (2004) Case control Physician diagnosis 770 1.46 risk for MI
  1. ACR, American College of Rheumatology; CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; MI, myocardial infarction; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.