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Table 4 Fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum levels of lipids and anti-PC IgM in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), separated for diet

From: Rheumatoid cachexia is associated with dyslipidemia and low levels of atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine but not with dietary fat in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

  Normal diet (n = 46) Mediterranean-like diet (n = 12) P value Mediterranean-like and vegetarian diets (n = 15) P value
Adipose tissue:      
SFA 29.2 (28.4 to 29.9) 29.1 (27.5 to 30.7) 0.60 28.8 (27.5 to 30.1) 0.90
14:0 3.3 (3.1 to 3.5) 3.4 (3.1 to 3.8) 0.60 3.5 (3.2 to 3.8) 0.43
16:0 21.7 (21.2 to 22.2) 21.7 (20.4 to 23.1) 0.92 21.4 (20.2 to 22.5) 0.55
MUFA 57.4 (56.7 to 58.1) 56.1 (54.6 to 57.6) 0.06 55.8 (54.4 to 57.2) 0.016
16:1 n7 6.5 (6.0 to 6.9) 6.0 (5.3 to 6.6) 0.30 5.8 (5.2 to 6.4) 0.13
18:1 n9 51.4 (50.9 to 52.0) 50.2 (48.9 to 51.2) 0.05 50.0 (49.0 to 51.0) 0.019
Omega 3 1.8 (1.7 to 1.9) 2.1 (1.7 to 2.6) 0.039 2.2 (1.8 to 2.6) 0.009
18:3 n3 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2) 1.1 (0.93 to 1.2) 0.72 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.22
20:5 n3 0.14 (0.12 to 0.16) 0.19 (0.12 to 0.25)* 0.08 0.15 (0.11 to 0.25)* 0.16
22:5 n3 0.33 (0.29 to 0.37) 0.40 (0.31 to 0.50) 0.06 0.39 (0.29 to 0.48) 0.11
22:6 n3 0.32 (0.28 to 0.36) 0.47 (0.25 to 0.59)* 0.07 0.47 (0.20 to 0.60)* 0.13
Omega 6 11.0 (10.6 to 11.3) 12.0 (10.7 to 13.2) 0.06 12.6 (11.2 to 14.1) 0.004
18:2 n6 10.1 (9.7 to 10.5) 11.2 (9.8 to 12.5) 0.06 11.9 (10.4 to 13.4) 0.003
20:4 n6 0.40 (0.36 to 0.44) 0.39 (0.31 to 0.46) 0.81 0.32 (0.26 to 0.45)* 0.35
Serum lipids:      
Cholesterol, mmol/l 5.3 (5.0 to 5.6) 5.1 (4.7 to 5.6) 0.60 5.1 (4.8 to 5.5) 0.57
HDL, mmol/l 1.9 (1.7 to 2.0) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) 0.97 1.9 (1.5 to 2.3) 0.86
LDL, mmol/l 2.9 (2.7 to 3.2) 2.8 (2.3 to 3.2) 0.58 2.8 (2.3 to 3.2) 0.52
OxLDL, U/l 62.1 (55.7 to 68.4) 59.4 (50.0 to 68.9) 0.67 58.8 (51.2 to 66.3) 0.57
Triacylglycerol, mmol/l 0.98 (0.88 to 1.1) 1.0 (0.82 to 1.2) 0.63 1.0 (0.81 to 1.1) 0.95
anti-PC IgM, U/mla 43.5 (30.3 to 65.5) 198.2 (171.6 to 209.2) <0.001 188.2 (63.3 to 208.1) <0.001
  1. Values are means (95% confidence interval) and amedians (interquartile range). The fatty acids in adipose tissue are expressed as a percentage of total fat. Significant results are in bold.
  2. Anti-PC IgM, antibodies against phosphorylcholine IgM; FA, fatty acid; HDL< high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; oxLDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fatty acid.