Genes differentially expressed before (T0) and 12 weeks after (T12) start of adalimumab in synovial biopsy specimens of rheumatoid arthritis patients who responded to therapy. Paired Student t tests indicated that 632 (out of 54,675) genes displayed significant differences in expression between T0 and T12 in six synovial tissue samples obtained from RA patients who responded to adalimumab therapy. Pathway analyses indicated that a significant percentage of these genes clustered into two distinct pathways: genes involved in the regulation of immune responses (a) and genes involved in cell division (b). Fold-change values are the mean level of decreased expression at T12 as compared with T0. (c) Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies of the expression of selected genes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial biopsy tissue before (T0) (n = 10) and 12 weeks after (T12) (n = 8) initiation of adalimumab therapy. Samples were loaded in triplicate, and results are the mean and standard error of the mean of gene expression, relative to the mean gene expression in a standard sample normalized to 1. *P < 0.05. CCL5, chemokine ligand 5; CTLA4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; LTB, lymphotoxin beta.