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Table 2 Rheumatoid arthritis associated with quartiles of plasma androgens in the Nurses' Health Studies

From: A prospective study of androgen levels, hormone-related genes and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P trenda P continuousb
Free testosterone       
   Median (controls) 0.028 0.046 0.061 0.085   
   Cases/controls 25/98 36/98 37/98 33/98   
   Unadjustedc 1.0 1.6 (0.8 to 2.9) 1.7 (0.9 to 3.2) 1.5 (0.8 to 3.0) 0.36 0.51
   Adjustedd 1.0 1.5 (0.8 to 2.8) 1.6 (0.8 to 3.3) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.5) 0.24 0.44
Total testosterone       
   Median (controls) 11.0 18.0 23.0 34.0   
   Cases/controls 32/104 33/103 31/96 36/92   
   Unadjustedc 1.0 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9) 1.1 (0.6 to 2.1) 1.4 (0.7 to 2.5) 0.32 0.75
   Adjustedd 1.0 1.1 (0.6 to 2.0) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.4) 1.5 (0.8 to 2.9) 0.20 0.52
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate       
   Median (controls) 30.58 56.16 93.10 158.20   
   Cases/controls 40/98 20/98 37/98 34/98   
   Unadjustedc 1.0 0.5 (0.3 to 0.9) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.6) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.5) 0.85 0.51
   Adjustedd 1.0 0.5 (0.3 to 1.0) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5) 0.7 (0.4 to 1.4) 0.66 0.71
  1. Data presented as relative risk (95% confidence interval), n = 132 preclinical rheumatoid arthritis cases/396 controls. aCalculated using median hormone level in each quartile and the Wald chi-square test. bCalculated using continuous hormone levels and the Wald chi-square test. cConditional logistic regression conditioned on strata defined by matched factors. dConditional logistic regression conditioned on matching factors, adjusted for body mass index (continuous), cigarette smoking (never, past, current smoker <15 cigarettes per day, current smoker ≥ 15 cigarettes per day), age at menarche, menstrual regularity, parity, breastfeeding.