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Table 2 Summary of intervention studies

From: Exercise therapy for the management of osteoarthritis of the hip joint: a systematic review

Author Design
• Intervention
• Control group
• Recruitment
• Diagnosis/Condition
• Baseline pain levels
Intervention
• Intervention category
• Dosage
• Exercises
• Follow-up
Measures
Green et al. [20] • Hydrotherapy and home exercise
• Home exercise only
• 47 subjects referred from specialist clinics (mean age, 66.8 years)
• OA hip diagnosed with radiology (with approximately 75% of subjects moderate to severe). Hip pain ≥ 6 months. Normal ESR and negative rheumatoid factor
• No baseline pain measures provided.
• Hydrotherapy and home exercise vs. home exercise only
• Two groups of subjects:
Hydrotherapy and home exercise: (24 subjects) home exercise 2× daily and hydrotherapy 2× per week for 6 week
Home exercise only: (23 subjects): 2× daily for 6 weeks with compliance monitored
• 3 mobility and 2 strengthening exercises; 10 repetitions progressing to 30
• Baseline measurements 3 times over 6 weeks before intervention, immediately after intervention, then follow-up at 6 weeks and 3 months
Pain
VAS
Hip function
Gait parameters
Haslam [19] • Acupuncture
• Exercise therapy
• 32 subjects referred from specialist clinics (> 39 years)
• OA hip diagnosed with radiology, excluding RA, steroid injection, and hip surgery. Mean duration of symptoms was 6 and 9 years
• No information provided concerning baseline pain levels
• Acupuncture vs. exercise therapy
• Two groups of 16 subjects:
Acupuncture: 25 minutes, 1×
per week for 6 weeks
Exercises and advice: baseline visit and 3-week check-up to correct exercises and progressed gently
• 5 exercises (not described)
• Measurements before and after intervention, then follow-up at 2 months
Self-reported pain and function
Modified WOMAC questionnaire
Hoeksma et al. [15] • Combined exercise therapy
• Comparison intervention
manual therapy
• 109 subjects referred from specialist clinics (> 60 years)
• Unilateral OA hip diagnosed by using American College of Rheumatology criteria (with approximately 80% of subjects moderate to severe). Hip symptoms ranged from 1 month to ≤ 10 years
• Baseline mean pain level during walking was 29 and 34/100 within groups
• Exercise therapy vs. manual therapy
• Two groups of 109 subjects:
Exercise therapy: (53 subjects) 25 min 2× per week for 5 weeks, total of 9 individual sessions + home program
Manual therapy: (56 subjects) 25 min 2× per week for 5 weeks total of 9 individual sessions (hip-joint stretches, manual traction, manipulation traction and education)
• Strengthening with weights, endurance (treadmill or cycling), range of motion, stretches, balance, and education).
• Measurements before and after intervention and then follow-up at 3 and 6 months
Pain
VAS for pain at rest, on walking, and main complaint
Pain subscale on HRQOL (SF-36) questionnaire
Hip function
Walking-speed parameters
HRQOL (SF-36) subscales of physical function
Stener-Victorin et al. [18] • Hydrotherapy and education
• One control (education only) and one comparison intervention (electro-acupuncture and
education)
• 45 subjects referred from specialist clinics (> 42 years)
• OA hip diagnosed by general practitioner with x-rays and pain consistent with OA
• Baseline median pain level during loading was 37, 55, and 56/100 within groups
• Hydrotherapy vs. control
vs. acupuncture
• Three groups of 15 subjects:
Hydrotherapy & education: 30 min, 2× per week for 5 weeks (10 sessions)
Electro-acupuncture & education: 30 min, 2× per week for 5 weeks (10 sessions)
Education only: 2-hr group session, 2× over 5 weeks. Included exercises undertaken once per day
• 10 exercises (not described) to improve joint strength, stability, and range of motion
• Measurements before and after intervention, then follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months
Pain
VAS for pain related to motion and loading, ache during day, ache during night
Self-reported function
Disability Rating Index
Quality of life
Global Self-rating Index
Sylvester [17] • Hydrotherapy
• Short-wave diathermy (SWD) and light exercises
• 14 subjects referred from specialist clinics (> 49 years)
• Not stated how OA hip was diagnosed Hip symptoms range from 2 to 8 years
• Baseline median pain level was 78 and 83/100 within groups
• Hydrotherapy vs. comparison
intervention
• Two groups of 7 subjects:
Hydrotherapy: 30 min, 2× per week for 6 weeks
Short-wave diathermy and exercises similar to those of hydrotherapy group:
30 min, 2× per week for 6 weeks
• Walking, leg swings, and mobility exercises
• Measurements before and after intervention only
Pain
VAS
Self-reported function
Oswestry Disability questionnaire
Quality of life
Philadelphia questionnaire
Tak et al. [16] • Strengthening and health education
• General medical practice
• 109 subjects, community volunteers (> 55 years)
• OA Hip diagnosed by general practitioner by using American College of Rheumatology criteria [35]
• Baseline mean pain level was 38 and 42/100 within groups
• Strengthening and health education (ergonomic advice from occupational home visit, and dietary advice) vs. control
• Two groups of 109 subjects:
Strengthening and health program: (55 subjects) 1 hr 1× per week for 8 weeks Control: (54 subjects) self-initiated contact with their own GP
• Strength training using fitness equipment; 2 levels of intensity: light and moderate; and a home exercise program
• Measurements before and after intervention and then follow-up at 3 months
Pain
VAS
Pain subscale on Harris Hip Score (HHS)
Self-reported hip function
Groningen Activity Restriction
Scale
Hip function
Time to perform 4 functional tasks
(walking 20 m, stairs, timed up and go, toe reaching)
Quality of life
Quality of life VAS
Health-Related Quality of Life
Questionnaire (HRQOL)