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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and laboratory features of patients with SpA or RA and healthy controls

From: Increased production of soluble CTLA-4 in patients with spondylarthropathies correlates with disease activity

  HC (n = 88) SpA (n = 165) RA (n = 71) P
Age (years) 44.4 ± 0.8 (20 to 62) 42.9 ± 1.1 (18 to 75) 59.1 ± 1.4 (19 to 80) < 0.0001 (KW) SpA vs HC (MW): P = 0.28 RA vs SpA and RA vs HC (MW): P < 0.0001
Sex 56 M/16 F 121 M/44 F 27 M/44 F SpA vs HC vs RA: P < 0.0001 (χ2) SpA vs HC: P = 0.9 RA vs SpA and RA vs HC: P < 0.0001 (χ2)
Disease duration (years)   9.2 ± 0.6 (0.5 to 35) 10.2 ± 1.1 (0.5 to 40) 0.5 (MW)
Extra-articular manifestations (%)   35/165 (21) 26/71 (36.6)  
Peripheral arthritis (%)   46/165 (27.8)   
BASDAI (0 to 100)   35.9 ± 2.2 (0.4 to 94)   
BASFI (0 to 100)   41.2 ± 2.9 (0 to 92)   
Swollen joint count (0 to 28)    7.2 ± 0.8 (0 to 22)  
Tender joint count (0 to 28)    4.7 ± 0.8 (0 to 28)  
HAQ (0 to 3)    1.5 ± 0.1 (0 to 3)  
HLA-B27 (%)   145 (87.8)   
Rheumatoid factors (%)    64/71 (90)  
ESR (mm/h)   28.2 ± 2.1 (1 to 163) 30.3 ± 3.1 (1 to 125) 0.3 (MW)
CRP (mg/l)   25.1 ± 3.2 (0 to 350) 22.3 ± 3.5 (1 to 132) 0.8 (MW)
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (range). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare age, disease duration, ESR, and CRP in the three groups. Then, Mann-Whitney U-test was used to calculate the exact P values between two groups.
  2. BASDAI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI = Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; CRP = C-reactive protein; ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HAQ = Health Assessment Questionnaire; HC = healthy controls; HLA = Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen; KW = Kruskal-Wallis; MW = Mann-Whitney; NS = not significant; RA = rheumatoid arthritis; SpA = spondylarthropathie; χ2 = chi-squared test.