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Table 5 Cytokine and chemokine concentrations from 35 SSc BALF samples related to the clinical characteristics and progression of ILD

From: Bronchoalveoloar lavage fluid cytokines and chemokines as markers and predictors for the outcome of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis patients

Parameter All BALF samples
(n = 35)
Samples from stable ILD
(n = 19)
Samples from progressive ILD
(n = 16)
Samples from end-stage ILD
(n = 12)
G-CSF 28.2 (1.4–191) 23.9 (1.4–45) 34.1 (20.2–191)a 32.6 (20.2–50.6)a
IL-1 0.9 (0–17.2) 0.5 (0–2.8) 1.3 (0.3–17.2)b 1.3 (0.3–17.2)a
IL-2 3.6 (0–24.9) 0.9 (0–7.6) 5.7 (0.9–24.9)a 5.7 (2.8–24.9)b
IL-4 0.4 (0–22.9) 0 (0–4.6) 3.5 (0–22.9)b 5.2 (0–22.9)a
IL-6 15.8 (1.7–104.6) 13.1 (6.2–30.7) 21.4 (1.7–104.6)b 21.4 (1.7–104.6)b
IL-7 4.43 (0–11.7) 3.5 (0–6.1) 4.88 (1.24–11.66) 4.88 (1.95–11.66)
IL-8 71.1 (5.9–794.5) 43.7 (5.9–209.3) 105.5 (22.4–794.5)b 124.2 (53.8–94.5)b
CCL2 47.1 (0–19,248) 44.6 (0–19,248) 92.2 (14.1–2,000.5) 139.4 (26.7–2,000)a
CCL4 45.5 (4.2–119.9) 39.5 (4.2–111.3) 53.9 (24.6–119.9) 53.9 (35–107.1)
TNF-α 0.9 (0–8.1) 0.3 (0–3.6) 1.7 (0–8.1)b 1.9 (0–8.1)b
Immunosuppressive therapy at the time point of BAL (during follow-up)
CTX/MMF 8 (23) 1 (9) 8 (16) 7 (12)
AZA/others 8 (11) 6 (9) 2 (2) 1 (1)
Number 17 (3) 10 (3) 6 (0) 4 (0)
Patients 29 19 10 6
Age (y) 59 (37–72) 61 (37–72) 53 (38–63)b 49 (41–59)b
Disease duration (a) 3 (0.5–14) 3.5 (0.5–14) 3 (0.5–10) 3 (0.5–8)
S/Ex/NS (%) 3/7/19 (10/24/66) 1/3/15 (5/16/79) 2/4/4 (20/40/40) 1/4/1 (17/67/17)
Female 22 (76%) 15 (79%) 7 (70%) 4 (67%)
mRSS 13 (0–31) 14 (0–31) 10.5 (0–24) 11.5 (0–24)
HR-CT score 13.5 (0–27) 13.8 (0–27) 13 (0–27) 17 (0.7–27)
TLC (%) 81.2 (47.2–124) 81.2 (47.9–124) 79.4 (47.2–104) 65.4 (47.2–97.1)
FVC (%) 75.7 (29.3–108) 84.4 (29.3–108) 68.8 (43.3–92.7)b 62.2 (43.3–72.6)b
DLCO (%) 61.6 (20.4–108.3) 66.7 (32.9–108.3) 53.6 (20.4–68.4)a 36.6 (20–68.4)b
Neutrophils (%) 3 (0–49) 2 (0–9) 14.5 (3–49)c 16.5 (4–38)c
Macrophages 82 (39–98) 87.5 (39–98) 73 (41–93)a 74 (49–91)
Death 4 (14%) 1 (6%) 3 (30%) 3 (50%)
  1. Progressive ILD was defined either by worsening of HR-CT (≥ 3) or by changes of the predicted FVC, DLCO-SB, or TLC values for ≥ 10% during a follow-up of 2.5 years. End-stage ILD was defined either by death or by the need for continuous oxygen supplementation. CTX = cyclophosphamide; MMF = mycophenolate mofetil; AZA = azathioprine; S = smoker; Ex = ex-smoker; N = non-smoker. Concentrations are given in picogram per milliliter. Median values and ranges are shown. P values of the Mann-Whitney test are given by aP < 0.05, bP < 0.01, cP < 0.001.