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Table 1 Balance in cytokine activities according to biological processes

From: Cytokines in chronic rheumatic diseases: is everything lack of homeostatic balance?

Process Cytokines
Inflammation IL-1/IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1 receptor II, soluble IL-1 receptor I, soluble IL-1 receptor II
  TNF/soluble TNF receptor I, soluble TNF receptor II
  IL-6/soluble gp130
  IL-18/IL-18 binding protein
  IL-22/IL-22 binding protein
  IL-13/IL-13 receptor alpha
  Several proinflammatory chemokines (CXC and CC)/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines
  Several proinflammatory chemokines (CC not CXC)/D6
  Chemerin 9/chemerin 15
Immune cell responses Th1 cells/Th2 cells
  Th17 cells/Th2 cells
  Th17 cells/T cells with regulatory function
  T cells with regulatory function/Th1, Th2, Th17 cells
Tissue repair and remodeling Transforming growth factor beta/TNF
CD4 T-cell differentiation IL-12/IL-4
  Transforming growth factor beta/IL-6 + T-cell growth factor beta
Tissue destruction Osteoprotegerin/RANKL
Metabolism Adiponectin/leptin, vistatin, resistin
  1. In view of the pleiotropic actions of cytokines, the table presents a far from complete view of possible opposing activities of cytokines and their ligands. The back slash (/) separates the opposing molecules in respect of a given biological activity. RANKL, receptor activator of NKκB ligand; WNT, wingless integration site.