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Table 2 Cytokine roles categorized according to their contribution to inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

From: Cytokines in chronic rheumatic diseases: is everything lack of homeostatic balance?

Proinflammatory Ambivalent Anti-inflammatory
TNF IFNγ IL-1 receptor antagonist
IL-1 Transforming growth factor beta IL-4a
IL-12 IL-6b IL-13
IL-15   IL-10c
IL-17A/IL-17F   IL-25
IL-18   IL-27
CXCL8   IL-35
CCL2   7ND
  1. 7ND, N-terminal natural deletion variant of monocytes chemotactic protein-1/CCL2. aIL-4 is anti-inflammatory in the context of rheumatoid arthritis synovial inflammation. By impacting on IgE production, however, IL-4 is a key cytokine in IgE-mediated inflammation. Similar considerations apply to IL-13. bIL-6 may be proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory according to the circumstances. IL-6 blockade has been shown to be clinically useful to control rheumatoid arthritis in randomized trials. cIL-10 is usually anti-inflammatory, but upon priming of monocytes with IFNα it induces proinflammatory responses.