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Table 2 Results for the individual and aggregate biomarkers for use as diagnostic markers and prognostic markers

From: Identification of progressors in osteoarthritis by combining biochemical and MRI-based markers

Biomarker CV (%) Diagnostic marker Prognostic marker
   p GEE
(nGEE)
p MAN
(nPA)
AUC p GEE
(nGEE)
p MAN
(nPA)
AUC OR
Gender   0.55
(-)
0.6
(-)
0.53
(0.42 to 0.63)
0.46
(-)
0.49
(-)
0.56
(0.43 to 0.70)
1.8
Body mass index   0.01
(51)
0.01
(51)
0.72
(0.62 to 0.82)
0.09
(-)
0.14
(-)
0.64
(0.47 to 0.80)
2.7
Joint space width 1.8 0.002
(41)
<0.001
(36)
0.73
(0.58 to 0.86)
0.44
(-)
0.38
(-)
0.59
(0.41 to 0.78)
1.4
Width 0.7 0.13
(-)
0.21
(-)
0.62
(0.51 to 0.72)
0.2
(-)
0.46
(-)
0.57
(0.39 to 0.75)
1.1
CTX-II 11.5 0.02
(70)
0.01
(64)
0.70
(0.57 to 0.81)
0.22
(-)
0.22
(-)
0.67
(0.50 to 0.84)
3.2
Volume         
   MT.VC 3.9 0.61
(-)
0.62
(-)
0.51
(0.40 to 0.63)
0.13
(-)
0.39
(-)
0.60
(0.43 to 0.76)
2.4
   MF.VC 4.9 0.65
(-)
0.59
(-)
0.51
(0.38 to 0.65)
0.06
(-)
0.25
(-)
0.63
(0.49 to 0.80)
2.8
   MTF.VC 3.4 0.64
(-)
0.62
(-)
0.51
(0.39 to 0.64)
0.07
(-)
0.28
(-)
0.63
(0.48 to 0.79)
2.9
Area         
   MT.AC 3 0.61
(-)
0.54
(-)
0.53
(0.41 to 0.65)
0.13
(-)
0.33
(-)
0.62
(0.45 to 0.78)
2.4
   MF.AC 3 0.68
(-)
0.59
(-)
0.52
(0.39 to 0.67)
0.07
(-)
0.27
(-)
0.64
(0.49 to 0.81)
1.8
   MTF.AC 2.6 0.66
(-)
0.61
(-)
0.51
(0.38 to 0.64)
0.09
(-)
0.29
(-)
0.64
(0.49 to 0.80)
1.8
Thickness         
   MT.ThCtAB 3.4 0.5
(-)
0.4
(-)
0.56
(0.43 to 0.67)
0.19
(-)
0.3
(-)
0.63
(0.45 to 0.80)
2.4
   MT.ThCtQ 2.7 0.01
(53)
0.005
(50)
0.72
(0.61 to 0.83)
0.38
(-)
0.49
(-)
0.57
(0.40 to 0.76)
1.4
Congruity, MT.CongClAB 6.6 0.01
(52)
0.001
(37)
0.73
(0.62 to 0.84)
0.54
(-)
0.65
(-)
0.53
(0.38 to 0.69)
1.7
Roughness, MT.RouClAB 2 <0.001
(31)
<0.001
(20)
0.80
(0.69 to 0.91)
0.39
(-)
0.13
(-)
0.70
(0.54 to 0.84)
2.8
Homogeneity         
   MT.HomC 0.8 0.03
(75)
0.06
(-)
0.65
(0.54 to 0.76)
0.05
(43)
0.08
(-)
0.71
(0.56 to 0.81)
3.3
   MF.HomC 0.9 0.1
(-)
0.05
(106)
0.64
(0.52 to 0.76)
0.64
(-)
0.65
(-)
0.51
(0.35 to 0.68)
1.3
   MTF.HomC 0.8 0.08
(-)
0.04
(94)
0.65
(0.52 to 0.76)
0.57
(-)
0.63
(-)
0.53
(0.37 to 0.69)
1.3
Longevity (basic) 1.1/0.8 0.01
(53)
0.02
(76)
0.68
(0.55 to 0.80)
0.06
(-)
0.12
(-)
0.69
(0.51 to 0.86)
4.0
Longevity-Tib 1.7/0.8 <0.001
(18)
<0.001
(16)
0.84
(0.77 to 0.92)
0.02
(30)
0.02
(32)
0.77
(0.62 to 0.90)
5.8
MRI Tib 1.5/0.8 <0.001
(20)
<0.001
(18)
0.82
(0.72 to 0.91)
0.03
(36)
0.04
(40)
0.74
(0.59 to 0.88)
4.8
  1. Results for the individual and aggregate biomarkers for use as diagnostic markers (Kellgren and Lawrence index ≤ 1 versus >1) and as prognostic markers (early progressors versus non-progressors) evaluated in the 21-month longitudinal study with 159 subjects. Precision given as the interscan coefficient of variation (CV) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantifications and as the interscan intra-observer CV for radiograph measurements. Precision is not given for gender and body mass index since no repeated measurements were made. For the aggregate markers, precision is given for both the diagnostic/prognostic variant. Significance was estimated using the generalized estimation equations (PGEE) and multivariate analysis of variation (PMAN); the required sample size by generalized estimation equations (nGEE as number of subjects) and power analysis (nPA). Sample size estimates are excluded for non-significant markers (P > 0.05). Area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) is given with 95% confidence interval. The high-risk threshold for the odds ratio (OR) was determined by cross-validation close to the median. Diagnostic and prognostic scores are median results over 500 randomly generated, representative, disjoint training/evaluation subsets. AC = cartilage area; CongClAB = cartilage congruity over the load-bearing area of bone; CTX-II = marker of collagen type II C-telopeptide fragment; HomC = cartilage homogeneity; MF = medial femoral; MT = medial tibial; MTF = medial tibio-femoral; RouClAB = cartilage roughness over the load-bearing area of bone; ThCtAB = cartilage thickness over the total area of bone; ThCQ = cartilage thickness 10% quantile; VC = cartilage volume.