Serial changes in expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and TIARP in glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-induced arthritis. Serial changes in TNFα concentrations in (a) serum and (b) arthritic joints and (c) TIARP mRNA and protein expression in spleens (left and middle panels) and arthritic joints (right panel) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting in mice with GPI-induced arthritis. As shown in the bottom panel of (c), TIARP mRNA in lymph nodes was also analyzed. Arthritis appeared on days 7 and 8, peaked in severity on day 14, and then gradually subsided. High expression levels of TIARP mRNA and proteins were detected in splenocytes on day 7 (the onset of arthritis). In joints, the expression of TIARP mRNA and protein was correlated with joint swelling (days 14 and 28). Data are mean ± standard error of the mean of five mice per group. *P < 0.05 (Mann-Whitney U test). GAPDH, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; mTNFα, murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TIARP, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adipose-related protein.