Stimulation of TNF-α and Il-6 by AGE-BSA. (a) Transcripts for TNF-α were significantly increased after one and two days (*P < 0.01, n = 15). (b) IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased two to seven days after advanced glycation end products-modified (AGE)-BSA treatment (*P < 0.001, n = 15). (c) Stimulation of fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) with AGE-BSA released significant more TNF-α as well as IL-6 into the culture supernatants as treatment with control-BSA (Co-BSA). Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant were normalised to cell number (*P < 0.01, n = 6). GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.