RAGE expression in FLS. (a) Real-time RT-PCR for the determination of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) mRNA expression. Incubation of cells with advanced glycation end products-modified (AGE)-BSA after one day induced the upregulation of RAGE mRNA (*P < 0.001, n = 15). (b) RAGE protein expression as determined by western blots. 5 mg/ml AGE-BSA for 48 hours significantly induced RAGE protein expression (*P < 0.001, n = 8). Examples of two independent western blots are shown. FLS = fibroblast-like synovial cells; GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.