NFκB activation. (a) mRNA expression for the p65 nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) subunit (real-time RT-PCR). Advanced glycation end products-modified (AGE)-BSA significantly increased p65 transcripts after one and two days (*P < 0.001, n = 15). (b) Western blot for p65 NFκB subunit protein expression. AGE-BSA in comparison with control-BSA (Co-BSA) significantly stimulated p65 protein expression two days after stimulation (*P < 0.001, n = 8). (c) Western blot for IκB-α and phosphorylated IκB-α (pIκB-α). Incubation of fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) for two days with 5 mg/ml AGE-BSA increased the amount of pIκB-α and decreased the amount of IκB-α resulting in a significantly higher pIκB-α/IκB-α ratio (*P < 0.001, n = 8). GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.