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Table 1 Cross-sectional study demographics

From: Urinary TWEAK as a biomarker of lupus nephritis: a multicenter cohort study

  LN patients Non-LN patients Normal controls Rheumatoid arthritis patients Osteoarthritis patients Renal controls Pvalue all (LN vs. non-LN)
Number of patients (% female) 30 (93) 49 (88) 28 (89) 79 (90) 25 (84) 31 (55) - (0.474)
Age (years) 34.5 (28 to 44) 41 (34 to 46) 37 (29 to 45) 58 (51 to 67) 63 (57 to 77) 63 (56 to 67) <0.001* (0.074)
Ethnicitya 14/14/0/2 27/17/0/2b 7/14/3/4 - - - -
African American (%) 46.6 58.7 25 - - - - (0.304)
SLEDAI 10 (7 to 16) 3.5 (2 to 6) - - - - - (<0.001*)
SLEDAI without renal component 2 (0 to 6)       - (0.426)
  1. Continuous variables presented as the median (interquartile range). LN, lupus nephritis; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. aAfrican American/Hispanic/Caucasian/other.bEthnicity of three additional non-LN systemic lupus erythematosus patients is unknown. *P < 0.05. The Mann- Whitney U test was used to compare two groups with continuous variables, while the Kruskal- Wallis test was used for three or more groups. The two-sample proportion test was used for categorical variables.