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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Predictors of the first cardiovascular event in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus - a prospective cohort study

  All patients
N = 182
Patients who developed CVE
N = 24
Patients free of CVE
N = 158
P
Traditional risk factors
Age years 45 (31-53) 59 (49 to 66) 44 (30-52) < 0.0001
Male gender 10% 9% 11%  
Smoking ever 51% 70% 46% 0.02
Hypertension 30% 42% 28%  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 125 (115 to 140) 140 (120 to 143) 120 (110 to 140) 0.03
Hypercholestrolemia 41% 54% 39%  
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 (4.3 to 5.9) 5.7 (4.5 to 6.4) 4.9 (4.2 to 5.7) 0.05
LDL (mmol/L) 2.8 (2.3 to 3.5) 3.0 (2.7 to 4.0) 2.8 (2.2 to 3.5)  
HDL (mmol/L) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.7) 1.3 (1.0 to 1.9) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)  
Triglycerides (mmol/L)* 1.3 (1.0 to 1.9) 1.5 (1.2 to 2.0) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.9)  
ApoB/ApoA*† 0.5 (0.3 to 0.6) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.8) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.6)  
Diabetes 2% 0% 2%  
Lupus manifestations
Disease duration 10 (4 to 18) 18 (10 to 24) 10 (4 to 17) 0.0005
Malar rash 58% 58% 58%  
Discoid rash 22% 22% 22%  
Photosensitivity 71% 50% 75% 0.01
Oral ulcers 29% 37% 27%  
Arthritis 84% 100% 82% 0.02
Pleuritis 38% 65% 34% 0.005
Pericarditis 18% 17% 22%  
Nephritis 30% 37% 29%  
Neurological disorder 12% 17% 11%  
Leucopenia 56% 57% 46%  
Thrombocytopenia 21% 4% 24% 0.03
Previous venous occlusion 12% 29% 9% 0.004
SLICC >1 53% 79% 49% 0.006
SLAM >6 at baseline 45% 50% 44%  
Medication
Months on steroid treatment* 35 (3 to 118) 54 (1 to 123) 31 (3 to119)  
Cyclofosfamide treatment ever 15% 8% 16%  
Azathioprine at baseline 38% 4% 33%  
Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine at baseline 29% 21% 30%  
Warfarin at baseline 9% 13% 8%  
ASA at baseline 19% 25% 18%  
Statins at baseline 0.6% 0% 0.7%  
Autoantibodies against
dsDNA 36% 33% 36%  
CL IgG 47% 58% 46%  
CL IgM 15% 21% 14%  
β2GP-1 IgG† 36% 54% 34% 0.05
Lupus anticoagulant 21% 25% 20%  
any PL 65% 83% 63% 0.05
SSA 43% 25% 46%  
SSB 24% 13% 25%  
Sm 11% 8% 12%  
RNP 11% 14% 11%  
Markers of systemic inflammation
hs CRP (mg/L)*† 1.9 (0.7 to 5.1) 4.9 (1.7 to 23.5) 1.7 (0.6 to 4.1) 0.0002
Fibrinogen (g/L)*† 3.4 (2.9 to 4.5) 4.6 (3.3 to 5.3) 3.2 (2.8 to 4.3) 0.002
α-1 antitrypsine (g/L)† 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7) 1.8 (1.4 to 2.2) 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7 0.002
SAA (mg/L)*† 5.0 (2.5 to 10.9) 9.3 (5.1 to 26.8) 4.5 (2.3 to 9.3 0.004
IL 6 (ng/L)*† 3.3 (2.0 to 6.9) 5.3 (2.7 to 10.9) 3.1 (1.9 to 6.4) 0.03
C3 (g/L)† 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.3) 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)  
C3d (mg/L)† 11.8
(9.6 to 14.7)
12.9
(10.5 to 15.9)
11.6
(9.5 to 14.5)
 
C4 (g/L)† 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.1 (0.09 to 1.4) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2)  
Markers of endothelial activation
sVCAM-1 (ng/L)*† 306 (252 to 385) 373 (303 to 503) 302 (249 to 375) 0.0009
von Willebrand factor %*† 117 (61 to 166) 157 (114 to 232) 112 (59 to 158) 0.001
Markers of renal damage
Creatinine (μmol/L)* 82 (73 to 94) 87 (76 to 107) 81 (72 to 93) 0.01
MDRD ml/min/1.73 m2 68 (57 to 80) 59 (45 to 71) 69 (58 to 81) 0.004
Blood urea nitrogen mmol/L† 5.7 (4.7 to 7.2) 6.5 (5.3 to 9.9) 5.6 (4.6 to 6.8) 0.01
Pathologic urine 23% 25% 22%  
Other biomarkers
Albumin (g/L) 45 (41 to 48) 41(37 to 45) 45 (42 to 48) 0.002
Homocystein (μmol/L)*† 12.3 (10.0 to 15.6) 12.1 (10.4 to 17.9) 12.4 (9.8 to 15.4)  
  1. Distributions are given as % or median (interquartile range). P values, not adjusted for age, ≤ 0.05 are presented. * indicate not normally distributed variables. † indicate that analyses were done on frozen samples. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg and/or present treatment for hypertension. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as a total cholesterol level >5.2 mmol/L.
  2. β2GP-1 = beta2glykoprotein-1; any PL = positive antibody test against CL IgG or IgM, β2GP-1 IgG or a positive lupus anticoagulant test; ApoB/ApoA = apolipoprotein B/A. Disease manifestations were defined according to the 1982 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for classification of SLE [19]; C = Complement factor; C3d = Complement factor 3 degradation products; CL = cardiolipin; dsDNA = doublestranded DNA; HDL = high density lipoprotein; hsCRP = high sensitivity C reactive protein; IL-6 = interleukin 6; LDL = low density lipoprotein; MDRD = Estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula [51]. Pathologic urine as defined by SLAM [20]; PL = phospholipid; RNP = r ibonucleoprotein; SAA = serum amyloid A; SLAM = a measure of disease activity [20]; SLICC = a measure of cumulative disease damage [21], Sm = Smith; SSA = Sjogrens syndrome A;
  3. SSB = Sjogrens syndrome B; sVCAM-1 = soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.
  4. Pathologic urine as defined by SLAM [20].