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Table 1 T-cell subsets involved in disease pathogenesis of AAV.

From: T cells in ANCA-associated vasculitis: what can we learn from lesional versus circulating T cells?

T-cell subset Characteristics Findings in AAV Reference
CD4+CD25+ Consists of two functionally different subsets: activated effector T cells (intermediate CD25 expression) and Tregs (high CD25 expression) CD4+CD25+ T cells are expanded. Marinaki et al. [11] Popa et al. [4]
CD4+CD25highFoxP3+CD127low Naturally occurring Tregs, potent suppressors, and proliferation and cytokine production of effector T cells Defect in function reported, but different Treg definition was used (CD25highFoxP3+). Abdulahad et al. [15]
CD4+CD45RO+CCR7- Effector memory T cells migrate to peripheral tissues but not to lymphatic tissue. Expanded, decrease during active state of disease Abdulahad et al. [13]
CD4+CD25+CD134+/GITR+ Specific T-cell subset, mainly of effector memory T-cell type Increased in AAV, association with disease activity and inflammation Wilde et al. [12]
CD28nullNKGD2+Perforin+ Senescent T cells, IFNγ, and TNFα producers; cytotoxic properties Expanded, abundantly present in granulomas Lamprecht et al. [28]
CD4+CD45RClow Produces type 2 cytokines as well as IL-10 and IL-17 Increased in AAV Ordonez et al. [59]
CD4+CCR5+IFNγ+ IFNγ cells are, by definition, Th1 cells and enhance cellular immune responses. Skewing toward Th1 in localized WG Csernok et al. [49]
CD4+CCR3+IL-4+ By definition, Th2 cells promote humoral immune responses. Skewing toward Th2 in CSS and systemic WG Kiene et al. [50] Balding et al. [48]
CD4+IL-17+ By definition, Th17 cells; IL-17 attracts and activates neutrophils. Skewing toward Th17 in WG during quiescent disease and in CSS during active disease Abdulahad et al. [8] Saito et al. [58]
  1. AAV, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis; CSS, Churg-Strauss syndrome; IFNγ, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; Treg, regulatory T cell; WG, Wegener granulomatosis.