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Table 1 Stepping Out program topics and the theoretical constructs addressed by each one

From: Efficacy of a progressive walking program and glucosamine sulphate supplementation on osteoarthritic symptoms of the hip and knee: a feasibility trial

Mode of deliverya Topic Content Constructs addressed
Walking guide; one-on-one consultations Provide opportunities and social support; correct misperceptions Provide tips on finding opportunities in the environment for walking;
Discuss barriers to doing the program and ways to overcome them in the future;
Discuss walking as an activity readily available (e.g., can walk anyway, inexpensive);
Suggest that friends or family be asked to provide encouragement and support for doing the program.
Environment
Walking guide; one-on-one consultations Provide opportunities for experiencing benefits and learning what to expect from changing behaviour Address health benefits of walking and other physical activities for OA sufferers;
Explain normal bodily responses to starting a walking program;
Provide warning signs of excessive exercise.
Outcome expectations
Walking guide Rewarding for behaviour change Discuss positive impact of walking on OA symptoms;
Describe physiological benefits of walking as rewards for increasing walking behaviour.
Reinforcement
Walking guide; one-one-one consultations Behavioural capability
Mastery learning
Observational learning
Discuss and demonstrate proper walking techniques pertaining to posture, arm motion, taking a step, walking stride, and pace;
Discuss 'safe' walking;
Advice on selecting walking shoes;
Discuss the use of short bouts (1500 steps) of walking to improve health and OA symptoms;
Instruct to increase steps at own rate;
Display stretching exercises.
Self-efficacy
Walking guide; pedometer;
log sheets;
weekly planners; one-one consultations
Self-regulation and
self-monitoring
Provide use of a pedometer for 12 weeks;
Advice on and review of setting step goals;
Guide in writing weekly step goals on log sheet and request a copy be sent to researchers weekly;
Guide in monitoring step counts of each program walk with log sheet and request a copy be sent to researchers weekly.
Guide in planning walks (specifying time, place and steps to walk) using a weekly planner.
Self-control
Walking guide; one-on-one consultations Self-talk Provide techniques for replacing negative self-statements with positive ones. Emotional-coping responses
  1. aThe Walking Guide was a 27-page booklet developed for the Stepping Out program. The Walking Guide, a pedometer, log books, and weekly planners were distributed at the Week 6 session. One-on-one consultations occurred immediately following the assessments at Weeks 6, 12, and 24.
  2. OA = osteoarthritis.