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Table 2 Odds ratios [95% CI] for educational attainment associated with four knee OA outcomes

From: Limited educational attainment and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Johnston County (North Carolina) Osteoarthritis Project

  Men Women Postmenopausal women
Radiographic knee OA n = 1,053 n = 1,574 n = 1,330
Unadjusted 1.65 [1.25, 2.17] 2.30 [1.84, 2.86] 2.18 [1.72, 2.76]
Adjusted age/race 1.12 [0.83, 1.53] 1.61 [1.26, 2.05] 1.55 [1.19, 2.01]
+ Lifestyle, clinical 1.23 [0.89, 1.70] 1.39 [1.08, 1.80] 1.35 [1.02, 1.78]
+ Occupation 1.21 [0.85, 1.71] 1.48 [1.12, 1.96] 1.34 [0.99, 1.81]
+ HRT N/A N/A 1.33 [0.98, 1.79]
Bilateral radiographic knee OA n = 908 n = 1,338 n = 1,132
Unadjusted 1.81 [1.25, 2.61] 2.77 [2.09, 3.67] 2.59 [1.92, 3.49]
Adjusted age/race 1.05 [0.69, 1.59] 1.72 [1.26, 2.35] 1.68 [1.21, 2.34]
+ Lifestyle/clinical 1.17 [0.76, 1.80] 1.45 [1.03, 2.04] 1.44 [1.01, 2.07]
+ Occupation 1.06 [0.67, 1.68] 1.62 [1.12, 2.36] 1.55 [1.05, 2.30]
+ HRT N/A N/A 1.53 [1.03, 2.27]
Symptomatic knee OA n = 1,052 n = 1,571 n = 1,327
Unadjusted 2.03 [1.43, 2.86] 2.69 [2.06, 3.5] 2.39 [1.81, 3.16]
Adjusted age/ethnicity 1.55 [1.06, 2.26] 1.90 [1.42, 2.54] 1.74 [1.28, 2.36]
+ Lifestyle, clinical 1.71 [1.14, 2.56] 1.66 [1.21, 2.27] 1.51 [1.08, 2.11]
+ Occupation 1.86 [1.20, 2.87] 1.64 [1.16, 2.31] 1.46 [1.02, 2.10]
+ HRT N/A N/A 1.46 [1.01, 2.09]
Bilateral symptomatic knee OA n = 943 n = 1,403 n = 1,172
Unadjusted 1.50 [0.82, 2.76] 3.11 [2.08, 4.64] 2.86 [1.86, 4.41]
Adjusted age/ethnicity 0.94 [0.48, 1.84] 2.07 [1.33, 3.20] 1.99 [1.25, 3.19]
+ Lifestyle, clinical 1.07 [0.53, 2.13] 1.75 [1.10, 2.81] 1.76 [1.07, 2.91]
+ Occupation 0.90 [0.43, 1.88] 1.87 [1.13, 3.11] 1.87 [1.09, 3.20]
+ HRT N/A N/A 1.84 [1.07, 3.16]
  1. Odds ratios compare low (<12 years) with high (≥ 12 years) educational attainment for having a knee OA outcome. For all models, data are restricted to individuals having a complete set of nonmissing values for their explanatory variables, and covariates are added (+) cumulatively.
  2. Adjusted age/race, adjusted for age and race.
  3. +Lifestyle/Clinical, additionally adjusted for alcohol and tobacco use, BMI, and knee injury.
  4. +Occupation, additionally adjusted for occupational category, physical activity score.
  5. +HRT, additionally adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy.