Localization of transgene expression after local or systemic administration of adenoviral reporter vector in mice. One day after collagen booster, nonarthritic DBA/1J mice were injected intra-articularly with 107 ffu or intravenously with 3 × 108 ffu Ad-eGFP. After administration, eGFP was assessed by immunohistochemistry in lung (a, b), liver (c, d), spleen (e, f), lymph nodes (LNs) (g, h), and synovium (i, j) after local (right frames) or systemic (left frames) treatment. Sites of eGFP-positive cells are indicated by arrows. (k) The expression of eGFP mRNA levels in each organ, blood, and bone marrow cells (BMCs). Draining LNs were negative on immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (not detected). Data are represented as the difference in cycle threshold (ΔCt) values compared with the housekeeping gene GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). mRNA levels that could not be detected are noted by 'nd' (not detectable). Background mean mRNA levels of eGFP are as low as the negative control. Bars represent mean ± standard error of the mean, and statistical differences were determined using Student t test. *P < 0.01. IA, intra-articular; IV, intravenous.