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Table 1 Localization and function of human peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes

From: Bacterial and human peptidylarginine deiminases: targets for inhibiting the autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis?

  Localization Function Reference
PAD1 Epidermis, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, and sweat glands Citrullination of filaggrin and keratin, facilitating proteolysis and crosslinking of the proteins and contributing to skin cornification. Maintains hydration of stratum corneum and epidermis barrier function. [6668]
   Differentiation of hair follicles.  
PAD2 Brain astrocytes, sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, skeletal muscle, spleen, macrophages, monocytes, epidermis, synovial tissue, and synovial fluid Citrullination of myelin basic protein in the brain and spinal cord, promoting electrical insulation of myelin sheaths. [45, 46, 66, 67, 6973]
   Citrullination of vimentin in apoptotic monocytes and macrophages.  
PAD3 Upper layers of epidermis and hair follicles Citrullination of trichohyalin, contributing to directional hair growth. [6668]
PAD4 Hematopoietic cells and inflamed rheumatoid synovium Citrullination of transcriptional coactivator p300 and histones H2A, H3, and H4, regulating gene expression by chromatin remodelling. Citrullination of fibrin, contributing to chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. [35, 44, 45, 74]
   P53-dependent citrullination of proteins following DNA damage, translocation of histone chaperone nucleophosmin, and p53- mediated inhibition of tumor cell growth.  
PAD6 Ovary and testis tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes Amino acids known to be conserved in PAD enzymatic activity are not conserved in PAD6. Function and enzymatic activity remain Unclear. [3, 73]
  1. PAD, peptidylarginine deiminase.