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Table 4 Adjusted pass frequencies for receipt of preventive services by men and women in the Lupus Outcomes Study

From: Provision of preventive health care in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from a large observational cohort study

  Immunizations (n = 1117) Cancer Screening (n = 1364) All Services (n = 2481)
Sociodemographics Percent (95% CI)
   Age    
18 to 34 0.42 (0.32,0.52) 0.63 (0.52,0.74) 0.48 (0.40,0.56)
35 to 54 0.58 (0.54,0.63) 0.65 (0.61, 0.70) 0.62 (0.59, 0.66)
55 to 64 0.59 (0.52,0.65) 0.70 (0.66,0.75) 0.66 (0.62,0.70)
65+ (referent) 0.72 (0.64,0.81) 0.76 (0.70,0.83) 0.75 (0.69,0.80)
   Gender    
Female 0.57 (0.47, 0.67) 0.73 (0.59, 0.88) 0.60 (0.51, 0.69)
Male (referent) 0.59 (0.56, 0.63) 0.68 (0.65, 0.71) 0.64 (0.62, 0.67)
   Education    
HS Grad or less 0.47 (0.38,0.57) 0.63 (0.56,0.71) 0.57 (0.51,0.64)
Some College 0.58 (0.53,0.62) 0.66 (0.61,0.70) 0.62 (0.59,0.65)
College (referent) 0.64 (0.59,0.69) 0.73 (0.69,0.77) 0.69 (0.65,0.73)
   Race/Ethnicity    
White 0.61 (0.57, 0.65) 0.67 (0.64, 0.71) 0.65 (0.62, 0.68)
Non-White (referent) 0.54 (0.48, 0.60) 0.70 (0.65, 0.75) 0.62 (0.59, 0.66)
   Income    
Above Poverty 0.60 (0.56,0.63) 0.68 (0.65,0.71) 0.64 (0.62,0.67)
Below Poverty (referent) 0.54 (0.44, 0.64) 0.72 (0.64, 0.79) 0.64 (0.57, 0.71)
Health Care Access    
   Insurance    
HMO with Public Insurance (Medicare, Medicaid) 0.77 (0.68, 0.87) 0.63 (0.53, 0.73) 0.69 (0.62, 0.76)
HMO with Private Insurance 0.60 (0.54, 0.67) 0.63 (0.57, 0.69) 0.62 (0.57, 0.66)
No HMO, Public Insurance (Medicare, Medicaid) 0.57 (0.51, 0.63) 0.66 (0.60, 0.72) 0.62 (0.57, 0.66)
No HMO, Private Insurance (referent) 0.56 (0.50, 0.62) 0.76 (0.71, 0.80) 0.67 (0.63, 0.71)
Generalist Involved in Care    
Generalist (referent) 0.61 (0.57, 0.65) 0.69 (0.66, 0.72) 0.66 (0.63, 0.68)
No Generalist 0.50 (0.43, 0.58) 0.64 (0.57, 0.71) 0.58 (0.52, 0.64)
   Rheumatologist Involved in Care    
Rheumatologist (referent) 0.61 (0.57, 0.64) 0.69 (0.66, 0.72) 0.65 (0.63, 0.67)
No Rheumatologist 0.47 (0.38, 0.55) 0.67 (0.61, 0.74) 0.59 (0.53, 0.65)
   Total Outpatient Physician Visits*    
Fewer visits (mean - 1 SD) (5.5) 0.54 (0.48, 0.59) 0.61 (0.56, 0.66) 0.58 (0.54, 0.62)
Mean visits (15.8) 0.58 (0.55, 0.62) 0.69 (0.66, 0.71) 0.64 (0.62, 0.66)
More visits (mean + 1 SD) (26.2) 0.63 (0.58, 0.68) 0.75 (0.71, 0.80) 0.70 (0.66, 0.73)
Health Status    
   SLAQ Score*    
Score at mean - 1 SD (4.7) 0.65 (0.60, 0.70) 0.67 (0.62, 0.72) 0.66 (0.62, 0.70)
Score at mean (12.6) 0.59 (0.56, 0.63) 0.68 (0.65, 0.71) 0.64 (0.62, 0.66)
Score at mean + 1 SD (20.5) 0.53 (0.48, 0.58) 0.70 (0.66, 0.74) 0.62 (0.59, 0.66)
   SF-36 Physical Function*    
Score at mean (58.6) 0.58 (0.55, 0.62) 0.69 (0.66, 0.71) 0.69 (0.66, 0.71)
Score at mean + 1 SD (88.0)    
Contextual Factor 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) 0.74 (0.70, 0.78) 0.74 (0.70, 0.78)
   Neighborhood Poverty    
No (referent) 0.59 (0.55, 0.62) 0.68 (0.65, 0.71) 0.64 (0.61, 0.66)
Yes 0.63 (0.53, 0.73) 0.74 (0.65, 0.83) 0.69 (0.63, 0.76)
  1. Values represent adjusted pass frequencies from multivariate logistic regression models, which provide estimates of the probability of individuals receiving services after controlling for the other variables listed. Bolded values indicate P < 0.05. Abbreviations: SLAQ, Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire; SF-36, Short-Form 36 Health Survey.
  2. *These were continuous variables in the regression models; pass frequencies represent the values at the mean score for the variable, and one standard deviation above and below the mean.