Phenotypic analysis of control and SLE BMDCs induced with FL or GM-CSF + IL-4. (a) Healthy control BMDCs induced with FL or GM-CSF + IL-4. When compared with BMCs, both immature FLDCs and mDCs expressed DC-SIGN, CD11c, CD45RA, HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86. Expression of these molecules was higher in mature FLDCs and mDCs. Comparing FLDCs and mDCs, both immature and mature FLDCs expressed BDCA-2 and CD123, whereas immature and mature mDCs expressed no or low levels of these molecules. (b, c) Immature FLDCs and mature FLDCs from normal controls and patients with SLE. SLE immature and mature FLDCs expressed higher levels of DC-SIGN, CD123, and CD40 but lower levels of CD11c and HLA-DR than did controls. (d, e) Immature and mature mDCs from normal controls and patients with SLE. SLE immature and mature mDCs expressed higher levels of DC-SIGN and CD86 and lower CD40 than did those of normal controls. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. Results are represented as mean ± SD of independent experiments of seven SLE patients and eight normal controls. BMDCs, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; BMCs, bone marrow cells; FLDCs, dendritic cells induced by FL; mDCs, myeloid dendritic cells; FL, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor; IL-4, interleukin 4.