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Table 1 Histopathological features observed in the tibio-tarsal joint of arthritic mice treated with vehicle or 25 mg/kg apremilast

From: Apremilast, a novel PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha from human rheumatoid synovial cells and ameliorates experimental arthritis

  Vehicle Apremilast
Animal # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Synovial hyperplasia 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Synovial villus formation 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fibrin deposition 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Inflammatory infiltrate in the synovial membrane 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pannus formation 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cartilage disruption 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hyaline cartilage destruction 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subchondral bone destruction 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Overall assessment: "determined as arthritis" 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  1. Histopathological changes in the joints from mAb-induced arthritis were described and scored, using semi-quantitative grading of five scores (0, unremarkable, 1, minimal, 2, mild, 3, moderate, 4, marked).