Effects of signaling molecule inhibitors on IL-27-induced expression of adhesion molecule and chemokines of control and RA-FLS. Control and RA-FLS were pretreated with AG490 (AG, 10 μM), LY294002 (LY, 10 μM), SB203580 (SB, 20 μM), SP600125 (SP, 10 μM) or PD98059 (PD, 10 μM) for one hour followed by incubation with or without IL-27 (50 ng/mL) in the presence of inhibitors for further 48 h. Surface expression of (A) ICAM-1 and (B) VCAM-1 of 5,000 cells was assessed by flow cytometry as MFI. Release of (C) CXCL10, (D) CCL2 and (E) CXCL9 was determined by CBA using flow cytometry. Results are expressed as the arithmetic mean plus SD from three independent experiments. DMSO (0.1%) was used as the vehicle control. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 when compared between groups denoted by horizontal lines.