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Table 3 Biomechanical, neurobehavioral, and inflammatory changes with diet-induced obesity

From: Diet-induced obesity differentially regulates behavioral, biomechanical, and molecular risk factors for osteoarthritis in mice

  Bivariate (r) Multivariate (β, r2)
Parameter Diet Percentage body fat Knee OA Diet (β) Percentage body fat (β) Knee OA (β) Whole model (r2)
Biomechanical        
   Dark phase locomotion (m) 0.25 0.26 0.14 - - - 0.05
   Velocity (cm/s) -0.42* -0.40 0.01 1.02 -0.11 0.14 0.21
   Prompted velocity (cm/s) -0.26 -0.19 0.09 - - - 0.09
   Stride frequency (Hz) -0.34 -0.37 0.08 - - - 0.22
   Prompted stride frequency (Hz) -0.31 -0.29 0.03 - - - 0.11
   Rotarod latency to fall (s) -0.71*** -0.83*** -0.33 -18.7 -10.1** 0.55 0.70*** a
   Forelimb grip strength (g) -0.70*** -0.54* -0.16 15.6** 0.73 -0.15 0.50** a
   Hind limb grip strength (g) -0.45* -0.46* -0.26 - - - 0.21
Neurobehavioral        
   Hotplate withdrawal latency (s) -0.63** -0.55** -0.31 2.24 0.076 -0.106 0.43*
   Tail-flick withdrawal latency (s) -0.02 -0.01 -0.13 - - - 0.02
   Time in open areas (%total)b -0.47* -0.46** 0.01 2.56 -0.18 0.18 0.43*
   Time freezing (%total)b 0.46* 0.32 0.33 -14.06* -1.16 0.95 0.35*
   Stretch attendsb -0.66*** -0.60** -0.20 4.85 -0.03 -0.03 0.51** a
   Open-closed transitionsb -0.18 -0.17 0.32 - - - 0.23
   Time immobilec (s) -0.56** -0.44 -0.30 63.1* 4.0 -3.34 0.37
Inflammatory        
   IL-1α -0.08 -0.09 -0.49* 18.8 3.0 -8.2* 0.27
   IL-1 receptor antagonist -0.05 -0.07 -0.18 - - - 0.03
   IL-12 0.18 0.17 0.19 - - - 0.06
   Keratinocyte-derived cytokine 0.17 0.17 -0.21 - - - 0.12
   IFNγ-induced protein 0.10 -0.01 0.06 - - - 0.08
   MIP-1α 0.24 0.39 0.17 - - - 0.22
   Leptin 0.84*** 0.95*** 0.53** -1.9 2.9*** 1.1* 0.93*** a
   Adiponectin -0.19 -0.02 -0.40 2694* 324* -274** 0.42*
  1. Inflammatory concentrations were measured in serum, and time points for comparisons are described in the text. MIP-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1; OA, osteoarthritis. aP < 0.05 controlling for 5% false discovery rate correction of multivariate whole-model analyses. bZero-maze behavioral test. cTail suspension test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using bivariate and multivariate generalized linear modeling. P values less than 0.05 shown in bold.