Effect of co-stimulation of IFN-γ (0.1 ng/ml) with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/ml), BLP (1 μg/ml), or poly I:C (10 μg/ml) on IL-32 mRNA expression and IL-32 release by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). (a) FLSs were incubated simultaneously with IFN-γ and either LPS, BLP, or poly I:C. IL-32 mRNA levels were determined after activation by using quantitative RT-PCR, and IL-32 release was determined with ELISA (b). (c) IL-32α mRNA levels were determined with quantitative RT-PCR. (d) Intracellular IL-32α expression was evaluated in FLSs with a cell-based ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three experiments (triplicates) on samples from four different patients with RA. *P < 0.01; **P < 0.001.