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Table 2 Categories of potential biomarkers examined in translational studies of systemic autoimmune diseases

From: Validity of clinical associations of biomarkers in translational research studies: the case of systemic autoimmune diseases

Biomarkers for diagnosis     
  All diseases SLE RA Other diseasesa
  n = 156 n = 48 n = 67 n = 41
Categories of biomarkers n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gene expression 48 (30.8) 9 (18.7) 26 (38.8) 13 (31.7)
Cytokines and receptors 26 (16.7) 6 (12.5) 10 (14.9) 10 (24.4)
Cell-surface markers 23 (14.7) 8 (16.7) 11 (16.4) 4 (9.8)
Lymphocyte markers 20 (12.8) 14 (29.2) 2 (3.0) 4 (9.8)
Chemokines and receptors 11 (7.0) 2 (4.2) 4 (6.0) 5 (12.2)
Miscellaneousb 8 (5.1) 1 (2.1) 4 (6.0) 3 (7.3)
Enzymes 6 (3.8) 2 (4.2) 3 (4.5) 1 (2.4)
Endothelial activation markers 5 (3.2) 2 (4.2) 3 (4.5) 0
Soluble cell-surface molecules 4 (2.5) 1 (2.1) 2 (3.0) 1 (2.4)
Signaling molecules 3 (1.9) 2 (4.2) 1 (1.5) 0
Proteomes 2 (1.3) 1 (2.1) 1 (1.4) 0
Biomarkers for disease activity     
  All diseases SLE RA Other diseases a
  n = 37 n = 27 n = 9 n = 1
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gene expression 10 (27.0) 7 (25.9) 2 (22.2) 1 (100.0)
Lymphocyte markers 8 (21.6) 7 (25.9) 0 0
Cell-surface markers 8 (21.6) 8 (29.6) 1 (11.1) 0
Cytokines and receptors 4 (10.8) 1 (3.7) 3 (33.3) 0
Chemokines and receptors 4 (10.8) 1 (3.7) 3 (33.3) 0
Soluble cell-surface molecules 2 (5.4) 2 (7.4) 0 0
Proteomes 1 (2.7) 1 (3.7) 0 0
Biomarkers for prognosis     
  All diseases SLE RA Other diseases a
  n = 9 n = 3 n = 5 n = 1
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Cytokines and receptors 2 (22.2) 0 2 (50.0) 0
Chemokines and receptors 2 (22.2) 1 (33.3) 0 1 (100.0)
Gene expression 2 (22.2) 1 (33.3) 1 (25.0) 0
Miscellaneousb 2 (22.2) 1 (33.3) 1 (25.0)  
Proteomes 1 (11.1) 0 1 (25.0) 0
  1. RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
  2. aJuvenile idiopathic arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and inflammatory myopathies.
  3. bMiscellaneous: uncommonly studied biomarkers such as antibodies, enzymes, and urinary markers.