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Table 2 The effect of methotrexate or azathioprine on the formation of antibodies against adalimumab or infliximab

From: The effect of immunomodulators on the immunogenicity of TNF-blocking therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: a review

Study Disease TmAbs IS used % AAAs or ATIs IS + % AAAs or ATIs IS - % AAAs or ATIs Pvalue Assay
Maini et al. [4] RA IFX MTX 17.4% 0%-15% 7%-53% NA LoBuglio et al. [30]
Vermeire et al. [13] Crohn IFX AZA 55% 46% 73% P < 0.001 Prometheus Laboratories
    MTX      (San Diego, CA, USA)
Baert et al. [10] Crohn IFX MTX 61% 43% 75% P < 0.01 Prometheus Laboratories
ACCENT I [11] Crohn IFX MTX 14% 10% 18% NA NA
ACCENT II [12] Crohn IFX MTX 32% 11% 24% NA NA
Colombel et al. [25] Crohn IFX AZA NA 0.9% 14.6% NA NA
Bartelds et al. [7] RA ADA MTX 17% 12% 38% NA Sanquin (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Lovell et al. [18] JIA ADA MTX 16% 6% 26% NA NA
West et al. [16] Crohn ADA MTX 17% 7.7% 20% NA Sanquin
CLASSIC II [15] Crohn ADA MTX 2.6% 0% 3.8% NA NA
  1. AAA, anti-adalimumab antibody; ACCENT, A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infiximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen in Patients With Fistulizing Crohn's Disease; ADA, adalimumab; ATI, antibody to infliximab; AZA, azathioprine; CLASSIC, Clinical Assessment of Adalimumab Safety and Efficacy Studied as Induction Therapy in Crohn's Disease; IFX, infliximab; IS, immunosuppressive treatment; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MTX, methotrexate; NA, not applicable; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TmAb, therapeutic monoclonal antibody.