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Table 2 Changes of TNF-α levels and clinical parameters during 6-months follow-up

From: Influence of comorbidity with depression on interdisciplinary therapy: outcomes in patients with chronic low back pain

   cLBP+DE
(n = 29)
cLBP
(n = 29)
TNF-α levels T0/T1 ↓*** ↓***
  T0/T2 n.s. n.s.
  T0/T3 ↓* ↓**
CES-D scores T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 ↓*** 39% ↓** 31%
  T0/T3 ↓*** 43% n.s. (3% ↓)
Pain 24 h T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 ↓*** 36% ↓*** 26%
  T0/T3 ↓*** 49% n.s. (15% ↓)
Pain 7 d T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 ↓*** 31% ↓*** 41%
  T0/T3 ↓* 17% n.s. (11% ↓)
R&M scores T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 ↓*** 35% ↓** 25%
  T0/T3 n.c. n.c.
Exercise 24 h T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 n.s. (10% ↓) n.s. (19% ↑)
  T0/T3 n.s. (17% ↑) n.s. (13% ↑)
SF-36 PCS scale T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 n.s. (8% ↑) ↑* 17%
  T0/T3 ↑** 13% ↑* 25%
SF-36 MCS scale T0/T1 n.c. n.c.
  T0/T2 ↑*** 25% ↑**11%
  T0/T3 ↑** 57% n.s. (4% ↑)
  1. ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; CES-D, German version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; cLBP, chronic unspecific low back pain; cLBP+DE, chronic unspecific low back pain and comorbidity of depression; MCS, mental Composite Scale; n.c., not collected; n.s., not significant; PCS, Physical Composite Scale; SF-36, 36-item short form health survey; T0/T1, difference between Day 0 and Day 10; T0/T2, difference between Day 0 and Day 21; T0/T3, difference between Day 0 and Day 180; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor- alpha; VAS, visual analogue scale. *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001