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Table 1 Clinical and psychosocial data for all subjects

From: Influence of depression symptoms on serum tumor necrosis factor-α of patients with chronic low back pain

  Healthy controls (n= 29) cLBP + DE
(n= 29)
cLBP
(n= 29)
Sex (female/male) 17/12 17/12 17/12
Age (years) 40.72 (23 to 66) 45.31 (20 to 69) 44.69 (24 to 68)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.1 (18.7 to 47.8) 25.1 (18.9 to 37.4) 24.2 (17.7 to 33.3)
Sleep (hours) 6.7 ± 0.7 5.6 ± 1.7 6.4 ± 1.9
Pain 24 hoursa 0 6.30 ± 1.89 5.13 ± 2.30
Pain 7 daysa 0 6.29 ± 1.58 5.19 ± 2.27
CES-D score 5 32.81 ± 9.38* 12.68 ± 6.64
Back function (R&M) 0 13.77 ± 5.26* 10.19 ± 5.65
Exercise in past 24 hours (hours) 5.98 ± 2.33 5.68 ± 5.09 5.28 ± 3.95
Alcohol consumption (24 hours) 16% 16% 19%
Nicotine consumption (24 hours) 20% 42% 23%
Medication    
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 0 28%* 7%
Opioids 0 24% 28%
Antidepressants 0 24% 17%
  1. Data presented as n, mean (range), mean ± standard deviation or percentage. cLBP, chronic low back pain; DE, depression; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; R&M, Roland and Morris [23]. a : Visual analogue scale, 0 to 10. *: P < 0.05.