Carnosine prevents HNE-modified Coll II-induced changes in chondrocytes phenotype and function. A total of 0.1 mM carnosine was added to HNE-modified Col II-coated plates before cells seeding. Cell morphology of human OA chondrocytes was analysed by phase-contrast microscopy. Cells were incubated in (a) untreated Col II, (b) HNE-treated Col II at a 1:200 MR, (c) HNE-treated Col II at a 1:200 MR + 0.1 mM CAR, (d) 0.1 mM CAR-treated Col II. (e) Cell viability of chondrocytes was evaluated by MTT assay. (f) Culture media from cultured cells was used to determine PGE2 and MMP-13 levels. ANOVA tests and Bonferroni's multiple comparison were performed to compare each condition. The data are means ± SEM of n = 4. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.