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Table 1 Main characteristics (means and confidence intervals or percentages) of study population by gender

From: Vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence, determinants and associations with disease activity and disability

  RA-women (N= 1,014) RA-men (N= 177) P1 Controls (N= 1,019) P2
  Mean 95% C.I. Mean 95% C.I.   Mean 95% C.I.  
Age (years) 58.7 58.0 to 59.4 60.0 58.4 to 61.6 n.s. 58.9 58.1 to 59.7 n.s.
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 24.7 to 25.3 25.9 25.4 to 26.5 0.01 25.7 25.5 to 26.0 0.002
Disease duration (mo.) 138 131 to 145 138 119 to 157 n.s    
Swollen joint count (range 0 to 28) 3.12 2.81 to 3.43 1.98 1.53 to 2.43 0.003    
DAS 28 3.96 3.90 to 4.03 3.55 3.40 to 3.70 <0.001    
HAQ score (range 0 to 3) 1.18 1.13 to 1.24 0.87 0.75 to 0.99 <0.001    
ADL (range 4 to 16) 8.41 3.02 to 8.22 7.24 6.85 to 7.63 <0.001    
25(OH)D (ng/ml) 24.0 23.2 to 25.0 24.7 22.9 to 26.6 n.s. 19.3 18.4 to 20.2 <0.001
PTH (pg/ml) 25.0 24.1 to 25.9 24.9 23.2 to 26.6 n.s. 33.1 31.7 to 34.3 <0.001
Pre-menopause 35.7%     33.2% ns
Sun exposure time >30 minutes 33.5% 51.4% 0.01 35% ns
Smoking 20.8% 20.3% n.s. 16.3% <0.001
Extra-articular manifestations 15.3% 13.6% n.s.   
Steinbrocker Functional state >1 66.8% 58.2% n.s.   
DMARDs therapy 88.0% 89.3% n.s.   
Anti to TNF therapy 46.5% 39.5% n.s.   
ACR Remission 22.9% 24.9% n.s.   
Good treatment response 43.7% 46.9% n.s.   
Osteoporosis therapy 29.6% 13.6% <0.01   
Glucocorticoid therapy 86.5% 83.1% n.s.   
Rheumatoid Factor positive 63.3% 66.3% n.s.   
Anti CCP positive 66.3% 66.7% n.s.   
  1. Abbreviations: 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ADL, activities of daily living; Anti-CCP, anti Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide; Anti-TNF, tumor necrosis factor α blocker; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; DAS 28, Disease Activity Score 28; DMARDs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index; PTH, parathyroid hormone; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.
  2. p1 is referred to between gender differences and p2 to between female patients and control women; n.s. = not significant.