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Table 1 Biologicals and targets that are used or potentially may be used in primary Sjögren's syndrome

From: What have we learned from clinical trials in primary Sjögren's syndrome about pathogenesis?

Target Biological Structure Results trials References
TNFα Infliximab Chimeric IgG1 mAb No effect in RCT [15]
TNFα Etanercept TNF-Rec1-Fc IgG1 fusion protein No effect in (small-size) RCT [17, 18]
  IFNα Recombinant IFNα2a Increase in unstimulated whole saliva flow (RCT) [32]
IFNα Rontalizumab Recombinant human mAb Not performed  
CD20 B cells Rituximab Chimeric IgG1 mAb Subjective and objective improvement of salivary flow (RCT), decrease in fatigue (RCT) [39, 40]
CD22 B cells Epratizumab Recombinant human mAb Increase in unstimulated whole saliva, decrease in fatigue [45]
BAFF Belimumab Recombinant human mAb In progress  
BAFF Atacicept TACI-Fc IgG1 fusion protein Not performed  
BAFF Briobacept BAFF-Rec-Fc IgG1 fusion protein Not performed  
Abatacept CTLA4-Fc IgG1 fusion protein In progress  
  1. BAFF, B-cell activating factor; CTLA4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; mAb, monoclonal antibody; RCT, randomized controlled trial; Rec, receptor; TACI, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor.