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Table 1 Cell cycle analysis of BMDM treated with TNF-α or its control, followed by MTX exposure for 24 hr or M-CSF withdrawal for 48 hr*.

From: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes survival in methotrexate-exposed macrophages by an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway

  Cell cycle distribution (% of cells)
  sub G0 G0/G1 S G2/M
Control 3.5 ± 0.5 78.6 ± 2.9 6.0 ± 1.0 10.7 ± 2.7
MTX (10 μM) 7.5 ± 1.0a 62.7 ± 2.2a 16.0 ± 1.2a 12.0 ± 1.2
TNF-α (10 ng/mL) 3.6 ± 0.4 77.0 ± 2.2 7.5 ± 1.7 10.7 ± 2.0
TNF-α + MTX 5.8 ± 0.8b 65.7 ± 4.8 13.8 ± 3.2 13.1 ± 2.6
M-CSF (30 ng/mL) 1.5 ± 0.4 74.2 ± 2.6 8.4 ± 1.9 13.9 ± 2.2
- M-CSF 15.4 ± 4.1a 74.7 ± 5.1 2.8 ± 0.7a 5.5 ± 0.9a
M-CSF + TNF-α 1.5 ± 0.2 71.8 ± 1.9 9.3 ± 1.3 15.3 ± 2.7
- M-CSF + TNF-α 4.4 ± 2.3b 82.3 ± 3.7b 1.9 ± 0.4 9.7 ± 2.7
  1. * Results are mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments in each case. a P < 0.05 compared to controls. b P < 0.05 compared to MTX alone or no M-CSF.
  2. BMDM, bone marrow-derived macrophages; M-CSF, macrophage colony stimulating factor; MTX, methotrexate; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.