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Table 2 Description of study interventions and outcome measures

From: Effects of rehabilitative interventions on pain, function and physical impairments in people with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review

Study Intervention Control intervention Intervention duration Post-treatment measurements Outcome measures
Rannou, et al. [31] Use of splint at night only Usual care based on physician's discretion 1 year 1 month (use of splint) Immediate VAS (previous 48 hours) VAS during pinch CHFS Pinch strength Kapandji index
Basford, et al. [22] Laser (15 seconds × 4 points) × 3 sessions/week Sham laser (15 seconds × 4 points) × 3 sessions/week 3 weeks Immediate Joint tenderness of thumb CMC, MCP, and IP and of other joints (0-5) Grasp, lateral pinch, and 3-finger chuck pinch strength Thumb CMC planar and palmar abduction, thumb MCP extension and flexion, and thumb IP extension and flexion
Brosseau, et al. [24] Laser (1 second × 74 points) × 20 minutes/session × 3 sessions/week Sham laser (1 second × 74 points) × 20 minutes/session × 3 sessions/week 6 weeks Immediate 6 weeks 12 weeks 24 weeks AUSCAN VAS (data not available) Lateral pinch and 3-finger chuck pinch strength CMC flexion and opposition, DIP flexion, MCP flexion, and PIP flexion ROM
Stange-Rezende, et al. [35] Room with heated tiled stove (≥3 hours × 3 sessions/week) + customary treatment (as for control) Customary treatment (NSAIDs, analgesics, home exercises, physiotherapy) 3 weeks Immediate VAS (general pain; in hands and global hand function) AUSCAN Grip strength
Favaro, et al. [39] Infrared radiation (20 minutes/sessions × 10 sessions) Sham infrared radiation (not reported) Not reported Not reported Grip strength
Stamm, et al. [34] Joint protection program - written instructions plus home exercise program (7 ROM exercises × 10 times daily) Education about OA (20-minute session) plus use of non-slip matting to open jars 3 months Immediate Self-reported global hand function - HAQ Grip strength
Lefler and Armstrong [30] Strengthening exercise program × 3 sessions/week No treatment 6 weeks Immediate Pain (0-6) Grip, palmar, 2nd-5th digit, and lateral pinch strength Finger joint ROM
Rogers and Wilder [33] Exercise program (6 ROM exercises and 3 strengthening exercises) (10 to 15 minutes daily) Sham hand cream (cream was applied once daily using gentle technique) 16 weeks Immediate AUSCAN Maximal right grip strength and other grip and pinch strength
Field, et al. [27] Massage on wrist/hand (once/week) + daily home self-massage No treatment 4 weeks Immediate VAS anchored with 5 faces (VITAS) Perceived grip strength
Dickens and Lewith [26] Acupuncture (6 sessions over 2 weeks) Mock transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (6 sessions over 2 weeks) 2 weeks Immediate 2 weeks VAS in general, joint tenderness Functional score Pinch strength
  1. ROM refers to active range of motion of carpometacarpal (CMC), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and interphalangeal (IP) of the thumb and MCP, distal interphalangeal (DIP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint movements of the 2nd-5th fingers. AUSCAN, Australian/Canadian osteoarthritis hand index; CHFS, Cochin hand functional scale; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OA, osteoarthritis; VAS, visual analogue scale.