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Table 1 Renal functions and related clinical or laboratory parameters

From: Renal co-morbidity in patients with rheumatic diseases

Function Clinical or laboratory parameter
Excretion Serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid
Filtration barrier Proteinuria as determined by dipstick test and/or by urinary protein/creatinine ratio, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio
  Hematuria as determined by dipstick test and/or microscopy
Sodium balance Blood pressure and edema to be evaluated by clinical examination
Water balance Serum sodium concentration, serum osmolarity
Acid-base status Serum bicarbonate (and chloride) concentration
Renal hormones Erythropoietin: hemoglobin level 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D: serum calcium/phosphorus Concentrations, iPTH
  1. iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.