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Table 3 Histological characteristics of patients with lcSSc or dcSSca

From: Histopathological cutaneous alterations in systemic sclerosis: a clinicopathological study

  Dorsal forearm Upper inner arm  
Histological characteristics No local skin involvement (n= 24) Local skin involvement (n= 22) No local skin involvement (n= 29) Local skin involvement (n= 16) Pvalueb
Mean epidermal pigmentation (± SD) 33 ± 22 37 ± 23 17 ± 18 40 ± 20 NRc
Mean hyalinised collagen (± SD) 20 ± 21 42 ± 29 11 ± 13 43 ± 33 < 0.001
Mean myofibroblast score (± SD) 1.1 ± 4.9 12 ± 21 0.79 ± 3.8 14 ± 27 0.004
Mean epidermal thickness (± SD) 1.6 ± 0.58 2.3 ± 0.61 1.1 ± 0.51 1.5 ± 0.48 < 0.001
Mean mononuclear cellular infiltration (± SD) 0.89 ± 0.34 1.1 ± 0.38 1.4 ± 0.79 1.9 ± 0.77 0.005
Mean mucin deposition in deep dermis (± SD) 1.7 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.4 0.96 ± 0.83 1.5 ± 1.2 0.09
Entrapment of eccrine sweat gland, n (%) 10 (42) 11/21 (52) 8 (28) 6/15 (40) 0.284
Focal exocytosis, n (%) 1 (4.2) 5 (23) 14 (48) 11 (69) 0.043
Loss of adnexae, n (%) 10 (42) 12 (55) 9 (31) 3/15 (20) 0.94
Loss of epidermal papillae, n (%) 10 (42) 5 (23) 1 (3,4) 0 (0) 0.122
Intima proliferation of deep arterioles, n (%) 3 (13) 6 (27) 5 (17) 2/15 (13) 0.596
Parakeratosis, n (%) 0 (0) 3 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) NRd
Pigment incontinence, n (%) 9 (38) 13 (59) 16 (55) 9 (56) 0.141
Telangiectasia in papillary dermis, n (%) 2 (8,3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) NRd
  1. alcSSc, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis; dcSSc, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis; SD, standard deviation; NR, not reported; b generalised estimation equation (GEE) modelling was used to determine the effect of local skin involvement for each variable, correcting for subject level and biopsy site; cin the GEE model, the effect of this parameter differed significantly between the skin sites (Student's t-test was used to evaluate the upper inner arm, P < 0.001, and the dorsal forearm, P = 0.580); dstatistical testing could not be performed.