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Table 2 Mean ln-transformed Pb levels by covariate status (n = 1,669a)

From: Whole blood lead levels are associated with radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional analysis in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

Characteristics and strata Mean ln Pb (±SD) P valueb
Race   <0.001
   African-American 0.86 (0.70)  
   Caucasian 0.51 (0.54)  
Sex   <0.001
   Women 0.52 (0.56)  
   Men 0.85 (0.68)  
BMI   <0.001
   >30 0.58 (0.59)  
   ≤30 0.68 (0.65)  
Current smoking   0.006
   No 0.57 (0.59)  
   Yes 0.97 (0.67)  
Current drinking   <0.001
   No 0.56 (0.58)  
   Yes 0.91 (0.70)  
Knee rOA   0.1
   No 0.64 (0.64)  
   Yes 0.63 (0.60)  
Knee sxOA   0.1
   No 0.65 (0.64)  
   Yes 0.60 (0.60)  
  1. aFor rOA, n = 1,635; for sxOA, n = 1,605; for smoking, n = 1,605; for drinking, n = 1,606; ln Pb, natural log-transformed lead; SD, standard deviation; rOA, radiographic osteoarthritis; sxOA, symptomatic osteoarthritis; bP values represent differences in mean ln Pb values between strata for each characteristic.