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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between ln Pb in quartiles and knee outcomes (joint-based analysis)a

From: Whole blood lead levels are associated with radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional analysis in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

  Knee rOA Knee sxOA
Knee outcomesb ln Pb quartilesc aORd 95% CI ln Pb quartilesc aORd 95% CI
  Q2 1.09 0.81 to 1.48 Q2 1.10 0.77 to 1.56
Presence Q3 1.18 0.89 to 1.58 Q3 1.16 0.83 to 1.62
  Q4 1.27 0.93 to 1.74 Q4 1.24 0.86 to 1.79
  Q2 1.07 0.80 to 1.43 Q2 1.06 0.75 to 1.51
Severitye Q3 1.25 0.95 to 1.65 Q3 1.16 0.83 to 1.62
  Q4 1.34 0.99 to 1.81 Q4 1.23 0.85 to 1.77
  1. aaOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ln Pb, natural log-transformed lead; rOA, radiographic osteoarthritis; sxOA, symptomatic osteoarthritis; Q, quartile; breference category is no rOA for rOA outcomes, no sxOA for sxOA presence and rOA with no symptoms for sxOA severity outcomes; cmean Pb (±SD) in micrograms per deciliter level by quartile: Q1 (reference), 0.94 (±0.20); Q2, 1.5 (±0.15); Q3, 2.13 (±0.24); Q4, 4.92 (±3.93); dadjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, BMI, current smoking and current drinking; eproportional odds assumption met; a common OR describes the relationship between mild, moderate or severe compared to none, or between moderate or severe compared to mild or none.