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Table 1 Relative risk (OR) of gout according to lifestyle factors and comorbidities

From: Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

Characteristics Controls N= 50,000 N (%) Gout cases N= 24,768 N (%) Multivariate OR (95% CI)*
Sex    
Male 36,953 (73.91) 17,946 (72.46) -
Female 13,047 (26.09) 6,822 (27.54) -
Age    
20 to 49 years 10,211 (20,42) 5,290 (21.36) -
50 to 59 years 10,111 (20.22) 4,873 (19.67) -
60 to 69 years 11,930 (23.86) 5,753 (23.23) -
70 to 79 years 11,896 (23.79) 5,858 (23.65) -
80 to 89 years 5,852 (11.70) 2,994 (12.09) -
Alcohol (units per week)‡    
Non-use 16,396 (32.79) 7,628 (30.80) 1 (ref)
1 to 9 u/w 13,362 (26.72) 5,960 (24.06) 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)
10 to 24 u/w 8,150 (16.30) 5,074 (20.49) 1.56 (1.49 to 1.65)
25 to 42 u/w 2,152 (4.30) 2,053 (8.29) 2.45 (2.27 to 2.63)
more than 42 u/w 633 (1.27) 739 (2.98) 3.00 (2.66 to 3.38)
unknown 9,307 (18.61) 3,314 (13.38) 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23)
BMI (kg/m2)    
15 to 19 1,588 (3.18) 315 (1.27) 0.66 (0.58 to 0.76)
20 to 24 13,899 (27.80) 4,225 (17.06) 1 (ref)
25 to 29 16,623 (33.25) 9,169 (37.02) 1.62 (1.55 to 1.70)
> = 30 7,412 (14.82) 7,176 (28.97) 2.34 (2.22 to 2.47)
unknown 10,478 (20.96) 3,883 (15.68) 1.48 (1.39 to 1.57)
Number of GP visits    
0 to 4 visits 22,700 (45.40) 6,785 (27.39) 1 (ref)
5 to 9 visits 13,201 (26.40) 6,692 (27.02) 1.38 (1.32 to 1.44)
10 to 19 visits 10,422 (20.84) 7,400 (29.88) 1.66 (1.58 to 1.74)
> = 20 visits 3,677 (7.35) 3,891 (15.71) 2.13 (1.99 to 2.27)
Chronic renal failure 467 (0.93) 947 (3.82) 2.48 (2.19 to 2.81)
Hypertension 16,280 (32.56) 12,858 (51.91) 1.18 (1.13 to 1.23)
Heart failure 1,422 (2.84) 2,142 (8.65) 1.84 (1.70 to 2.00)
Ischemic heart disease 6,716 (13.43) 4,923 (19.88) 1.19 (1.14 to 1.25)
Hyperlipidemia    
Hypercholesterolemia† 4,188 (8.38) 3,124 (12.61) 1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)
Hypertrygliceridemia† 218 (0.44) 216 (0.87) 1.45 (1.18 to 1.79)
Other dyslipidemia† 1,849 (3.70) 1,699 (6.86) 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31)
Diabetes 3,885 (7.77) 2,404 (9.71) 0.66 (0.62 to 0.71)
Nephrolithiasis 776 (1.55) 446 (1.80) 1.03 (0.91 to 1.18)
Psoriasis 1,894 (3.79) 1,173(4.74) 1.12 (1.04 to 1.22)
  1. *Odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, number of GP visits, BMI, alcohol consumption, IHD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, chronic renal failure and use of diuretics.
  2. †Note: The estimate of each variable was calculated by removing hyperlipidemia from the model.
  3. ‡1 unit = 10 ml of pure ethanol (eight grams of alcohol)