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Table 2 Relative risk (OR) of gout associated with use of various medications

From: Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

Co-medication Controls N= 50,000 N (%) Gout Cases N= 24,768 N (%) Multivariate OR (95%CI)*
Diuretics
Never use 36,237 (72.47) 12,206 (49.28) 1(ref)
Current (<31 days) 8,582 (17.16) 9,921 (40.06) 3.00 (2.85 to 3.15)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 1,462 (2.92) 1,050 (4.24) 1.83 (1.67 to 2.01)
Past (>365 days) 3,719 (7.44) 1,591 (6.42) 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)
Aspirin low-dose
Never use 38,737 (77.47) 16,924 (68.33) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 7,788 (15.58) 5,291 (21.36) 0.95 (0.90 to 1.00)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 1,292 (2.58) 938 (3.79) 1.12 (1.02 to 1.24)
Past (>365 days) 2,183 (4.37) 1,615 (6.52) 1.10 (1.02 to 1.19)
NSAIDs
Never use 20,989 (41.98) 6,735 (27.19) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 4,064 (8.13) 4,791 (19.34) 3.07 (2.90 to 3.24)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 5,616 (11.23) 4,107 (16.58) 2.05 (1.94 to 2.16)
Past (>365 days) 19,331 (38.66) 9,135 (36.88) 1.29 (1.24 to 1.35)
Transplant rejection drugs†
Never use 49,792 (99.58) 24,586 (99.27) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 94 (0.19) 90 (0.36) 1.12 (0.80 to 1.57)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 21 (0.04) 23 (0.09) 1.50 (0.77 to 2.93)
Past (>365 days) 93 (0.19) 69 (0.28) 1.14 (0.81 to 1.60)
Azathioprine
Never use 49,794 (99.59) 24607 (99.35) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 89 (0.18) 65 (0.26) 0.93 (0.64 to 1.34)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 22 (0.04) 20 (0.08) 1.11 (0.56 to 2.22)
Past (>365 days) 95 (0.19) 76 (0.31) 1.21 (0.87 to 1.68)
Cyclosporine
Never use 49,941 (99.88) 24,657 (99.55) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 20 (0.04) 75 (0.30) 3.72 (2.17 to 6.40)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 6 (0.01) 10 (0.04) 1.42 (0.46 to 4.38)
Past (>365 days) 33 (0.07) 26 (0.10) 0.91 (0.52 to 1.61)
Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) (women only)
Never use 10,436 (79.99) 5,368 (78.69) 1 (ref)
Current (<31 days) 785 (6.02) 345 (5.06) 0.86 (0.74 to 1.01)
Recent (31 to 365 days) 347 (2.66) 192 (2.81) 1.07 (0.87 to 1.32)
Past (>365 days) 1,479 (11.34) 917 (13.44) 1.02 (0.91 to 1.13)
  1. *Odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, number of GP visits, BMI, alcohol consumption, IHD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, chronic renal failure and use of diuretics.
  2. † Transplant rejection drugs include: azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid, sirolimus, tacrolimus.
  3. NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs